Re-teeing is quite ok. Ball in waterhazard (not lateral) provides 3 options: #1: play it as it lies, #2: back in a straight line and #3: go back to where you hit the original from. If that is on the teebox, you may re-tee since you bring a new ball in play on the teebox. Note: teeing up on the teebox is optional, if you wish you always can hit it from the grass. Any course management that does not allow that does not provide a golfcourse but something that just bears a slight resemblance to one.
In case of a lateral water hazard (red stakes) you also may drop within 2 clublengths from the point where the ball last crossed the margin of the hazard, not nearer to the hole (or on the opposite side of the water hazard, again within 2 clublengths, not nearer to the hole).
However, back to the original question. Rule 27-2 does not apply, these second and third shots are not provisionals* thus yes, his shot that landed on the fairway makes 5 (teeshot = 1, water penalty = 2, second teeshot = 3, water penalty = 4, third teeshot = 5).
A ball can only be a privisonal when the original may be out of bounds or lost. A ball in the water isn't lost. See definitions of provisional ball and lost ball in the rulebook.
But even then... if there had not been a water hazard and both the first ball and the first provisional could not be found (thus both where lost), the second provisional would be for 5.